Table of Contents[Hide][Show]
- 1. What do you mean by the network?
- 2. What exactly is network security?
- 3. In the context of network security, what do you mean by risk, vulnerability, and threat?
- 4. What is the potential impact of a computer network attack?
- 5. In terms of your home network, do you have a Wireless Access Point, and if so, how do you protect it?
- 6. What do information network security engineers aim to accomplish inside an organization?
- 9. What are the various VPN varieties, and when would one utilize one?
- 10. How up-to-date are you with network security-related news? How frequently do you read these stories? Where do you find news about security?
- 11. What methods of user authentication are the safest?
- 12. What steps would you take to protect a wireless network?
- 13. Which measures are most effective against a brute force login attack?
- 14. Describe the CIA.
- 15. Describe how symmetric and asymmetric encryption differ.
- 16. What distinguishes a proxy server from a firewall?
- 17. What do you mean by IPS?
- 18. In terms of network security, what is an intrusion prevention system?
- 19. Give an instance where you had to troubleshoot a network problem.
- 20. Describe the distinction between a white hat and a black-hat hacker.
- 21. In terms of security, HTTPS or SSL, which is more effective?
- 22. How would you react if you saw questionable behavior in your network logs?
- 23. Describe the purpose of salting and the procedures involved.
- 24. Describe a UTM firewall.
- 25. Why are network firewalls incompatible with an Active FTP?
- 26. The "Man In The Middle" attack: how do you respond?
- 27. Have you ever written security policies?
- 28. What exactly is a stateful inspection?
- 29. What do you mean by Ransomware?
- 30. Describe a DDoS attack.
- 31. Spyware: What is it?
- 32. Describe malware.
- 33. Phishing: What Is It?
- 34. What exactly is adware?
- 35. What countermeasure will work best against a CSRF?
- 36. We aim to strengthen our cybersecurity. What are some areas you think we should concentrate on?
- 37. What frequency of network monitoring is recommended?
- 38. What exactly is a botnet?
- 39. Describe traceroute.
- 40. Which three key actions must you do to protect a Linux server if you work with one?
In the current business environment, all firms, large and small, rely on the internet and digital information to do business. To take use of the internet’s potential, an increasing number of businesses are implementing networks for their operations.
Internal networks are susceptible to assaults and hackers when they begin exchanging information online. The network and all the information on it must be secured as a result, which is very necessary.
Additional security breaches can have a detrimental effect on the organization’s worth or reputation as well as commercial operations. Security of the company’s network infrastructure and data is so essential.
As the globe grows more computerized, so does the demand for competent network security engineers. These specialists are in charge of planning and executing security measures to safeguard computer networks from illegal access, theft, or damage.
If you want to work in this in-demand sector, you’ll need to be prepared to answer a variety of questions about your experience and knowledge during a job interview.
This post will give you basic to advanced network security interview questions and answers that will help you stand out and obtain the job you desire.
1. What do you mean by the network?
A network is a collection of linked computers and other devices that allow data to move back and forth between them. This is the process of tying various things together and enabling communication between them.
The capacity to share data is one of the most crucial networking features. People can share information and connect with one another over the Internet, a vast network. Data sharing allows for faster and more effective information access.
Security is yet another crucial component of networking. Because there are so many potential outcomes, networking is a dangerous activity. You can lose all of your data, for instance, if someone breaks into your computer. You might get into problems if someone takes your identity.
2. What exactly is network security?
The goal of network security, a subset of cybersecurity, is to safeguard the information, hardware, and software linked to a company’s network.
To ascertain whether all the devices and apps using the company’s network are legitimate users and have permission to access the data, professionals with expertise in network security operations in an organization. Additionally, they guarantee that no foreign actions occur on a company’s network.
Additionally, they use several technologies to guarantee the same. Here are a few common types of network security solutions that guard businesses against hostile intrusions.
- Firewall security
- Cloud protection
- Virtual private network
- Network access control
- Detection and avoidance of intrusions
3. In the context of network security, what do you mean by risk, vulnerability, and threat?
A risk is something that happens when a system is safe but not adequately secure, increasing the possibility of danger. A flaw or breach in your network or equipment is known as a vulnerability (e.g. modems, routers, access points).
A viral attack is an example of danger since it has the potential to start an event.
4. What is the potential impact of a computer network attack?
Hackers or attackers target computer networks with the intent of causing irrevocable harm to businesses. When computer networks are breached by an assault or hack, undesirable consequences follow.
- Profits have been cut.
- Value decline among shareholders
- Reputational damage
- Customer dissatisfaction
- Brand value depreciation
- Loss of confidential and proprietary information
5. In terms of your home network, do you have a Wireless Access Point, and if so, how do you protect it?
There are several ways to safeguard a WAP, but the three most common are to use MAC address filtering, WPA2, and not broadcast the SSID.
This is another attempt by an employer to determine what is important to you individually in terms of security. After all, individuals choose the finest for themselves!
6. What do information network security engineers aim to accomplish inside an organization?
The following are some goals of establishing a network security program in organizations:
- Stop illegal access to the network
- Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and sensitive data of network users
- Defend the network from external threats like hacking and stop unauthorized users from accessing it.
- To prevent malicious users from stealing any data that is stored or in transit or throughout the network.
- Defend the network from malware and other sorts of attacks (DDoS, MITM, Eavesdropping, etc.)
7. Do you understand the various kinds of firewalls and how they are used?
A typical security mechanism employed by network engineers is the firewall.
This is a question that the interviewer can ask you to check whether you have experience utilizing firewalls in your prior employment and to find out which kinds of firewalls you are knowledgeable about.
Try to describe the various kinds of firewalls and how they operate in your response.
Example: “In my previous employment, I’ve dealt with both hardware- and software-based firewalls. I believe that each style has advantages of its own.
Hardware-based firewalls, for instance, can be more secure due to their integration into the router itself. Software-based firewalls, however, provide simpler customization. In general, I believe it’s crucial to employ the most appropriate firewall for the circumstance.
8. In terms of network security, what does AAA stand for?
Authorization, authentication, and accounting are abbreviated as AAA. Accounting is a crucial business process, even if authentication and authorization are the two pillars of network security.
- The process of ascertaining a user’s legitimacy is referred to as authentication. To validate the user, they do a number of diagnostic tests.
- The right to use a company’s network has been granted to a person or object. A portion of the company’s network is made accessible to each user.
- Accounting describes a piece of technology that helps a company compile data on how its networks are operating. Finally, AAA is a framework for monitoring network activity, people, and systems in enterprises.
9. What are the various VPN varieties, and when would one utilize one?
A VPN is a technology for network security that enables users to safely connect to private networks. Your understanding of various VPN kinds and their applications in the workplace can be evaluated by the interviewer by asking you this question.
As many VPN kinds as you can be listed in your response, along with an explanation of when each type is most beneficial.
As an example: There are two sorts of VPNs: site-to-site and client-to-site.” Site-to-site VPNs enable businesses to link their complete network to the network of another business.
This is useful for companies with several locations or offices. Client-to-site VPNs enable employees to connect to resources on a distant network from any location.
For example, if I am working remotely and want access to my company’s servers, I can do so by using a client-to-site VPN.
10. How up-to-date are you with network security-related news? How frequently do you read these stories? Where do you find news about security?
Hackers and data breaches have made headlines often over the past few years, and network security issues are a hot topic right now. How knowledgeable you are about recent security news and occurrences will be something an employer will want to know.
Your best choices for news sources are Twitter, Reddit, and Team Cymru. However, be cautious to confirm the veracity of the sources.
11. What methods of user authentication are the safest?
One of the typical network security interview questions is this one. You can respond to this question by stating that the most secure methods of user authentication include biometrics, tokens, and passwords.
Furthermore, user authentication is simple and rapid thanks to two-factor authentication. It is also safe to check the user’s personal information.
12. What steps would you take to protect a wireless network?
The interviewer can ask you about how you would protect wireless networks as they are a frequent method for connecting devices.
Give examples of the security measures you use to protect wireless networks from outside interference and hacking attempts.
Example: Since wireless networks lack the physical boundaries that wired ones have, they are potentially susceptible. I start by enabling encryption on each wireless access point to prevent data from being intercepted while it is being sent between devices.
To prevent unwanted users from using the network, I next installed firewalls. Last but not least, I put in intrusion detection systems to watch traffic and spot any odd behavior.
13. Which measures are most effective against a brute force login attack?
There are three main steps you can take to protect yourself from a brute force login assault. The account lockout is the first step. Until the administrator decides to reopen the account, offending accounts are kept out.
The progressive delay defense is up next. In this case, the account is locked after a certain number of failed login attempts for a certain number of days.
The challenge-response test, which is the last step, prevents automated submissions made using the login page’s technology.
14. Describe the CIA.
The CIA is an acronym meaning Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. An organizational policy for information security is to be based on the CIA model.
- Privacy is nearly the same as confidentiality. In order to reduce assaults and prevent sensitive information from getting into the wrong hands, computer networks must maintain confidentiality.
- Maintaining data’s integrity across its entire existence means keeping it consistent, accurate, and trustworthy. Recognizing that data is susceptible while in transit and taking precautions to guarantee that it cannot be altered by unauthorized parties, and jeopardizing confidentiality, are both necessary.
- When a network is available, all of its physical infrastructure, software, and resources are made accessible to authorized users. Maintaining a fully functional operating system free of software conflicts and performing repairs promptly are two ways to assure availability. Availability is also required to keep all hardware in good working order.
15. Describe how symmetric and asymmetric encryption differ.
Asymmetric encryption utilizes distinct keys for encryption and decryption, whereas symmetric encryption uses the same key for both operations.
For obvious reasons, symmetric is quicker, but there is a danger involved in transferring the key via an unencrypted channel.
16. What distinguishes a proxy server from a firewall?
Your network security experts will be put to the test with this question. The interviewer can also examine how you use that information in practical settings.
Two unique definitions and an example of each should be included in your response.
As an illustration, consider the following: “A proxy server serves as a go-between for clients and servers, enabling users to access data on other computers through it.
A firewall is a system created to guard against unwanted access to a computer from the outside world. It accomplishes this by filtering incoming and outgoing traffic in accordance with the user-defined criteria.
17. What do you mean by IPS?
An IPS is a system for threat prevention that examines every network data flow to find and stop malicious behavior as well as to spot network vulnerabilities. Because it can be set up to identify different network threats and comprehend network weaknesses, IPS is useful.
IPS is often installed at the network’s outermost boundary. There are many different kinds of IPS; some methods to stop intrusions include signature-based, anomaly-based, protocol-based, and policy-based IPS.
18. In terms of network security, what is an intrusion prevention system?
An intrusion prevention system (IPS) is hardware or software-based network security tool that scans a network for illicit activity and blocks, blocks, or drops it as it happens in addition to reporting it.
Compared to an intrusion prevention system, an IDS is more sophisticated because it only identifies harmful activities without taking any further action (IPS).
An intrusion prevention system (IPS) could be a part of a next-generation firewall (NGFW) or unified threat management (UTM) solution.
They are one of the most popular network security solutions because they are capable of examining a high volume of traffic without affecting network performance.
19. Give an instance where you had to troubleshoot a network problem.
Engineers spend a lot of time troubleshooting, therefore companies are interested in knowing whether you have any expertise with it. Explain the problem and the solution in your response.
Example: At my previous employment, I had to solve a situation where some people couldn’t access specific websites. I discovered there was a firewall rule limiting traffic from certain sites after looking at the network logs.
After removing the rule, I retested the connection. I put the new regulation into effect because it worked.
20. Describe the distinction between a white hat and a black-hat hacker.
Hackers using black hat and white hat techniques are two sides of the same coin. Both organizations have the ability and competence to break into networks and access data that is typically secured.
However, white hats work to thwart the political ambitions of black hats whereas the former are driven by personal greed, hatred, or political agendas.
To evaluate the efficiency of security, many white hat hackers also do network system tests and simulations.
21. In terms of security, HTTPS or SSL, which is more effective?
By combining HTTP and SSL, HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) makes surfing more secure by encrypting all traffic. An Internet technique known as SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) guards communications between two or more parties over the Internet.
While all of these are important to know for the sake of web construction, SSL ultimately prevails in terms of sheer security, even if it’s a close call.
22. How would you react if you saw questionable behavior in your network logs?
Your ability to solve problems and spot suspicious activity might be evaluated by the interviewer using this question. Give examples from prior encounters where you saw abnormal network activity or other indications of cybercrime.
Example: “I would first check to see whether it was a false positive if I noticed any weird behavior in my logs. If not, I would look into it more by verifying the IP address that made the log entry.
After that, I would examine the event’s time stamp to determine the type of data that was being communicated at that moment. This could help me determine whether the action is being done with malevolent intent.
23. Describe the purpose of salting and the procedures involved.
A password is strengthened via the process of salting, which involves adding special characters. Making the password longer and including an additional set of characters that a hacker would have to choose from, improves password strength in two ways.
In general, it’s a low-level defensive because many skilled hackers are already aware of the procedure and take it into consideration, but it’s a sensible precaution to take for users who frequently create weak passwords.
24. Describe a UTM firewall.
In your network, a single device offers a variety of security features and services. Your network users are secured by a range of security features provided by UTM, such as anti-virus, content filtering, email and web blocking, and anti-spam, to mention a few.
It could be easier to safeguard the network if all of an organization’s IT security services were combined into a single device. With only one pane of glass, you can keep an eye on all threats and security-related behavior within your place of business.
With this method, you receive thorough, streamlined access to every component of your security or wireless foundation.
25. Why are network firewalls incompatible with an Active FTP?
A firewall is created by entering a port number (or a range of port numbers) and an active or passive FTP traffic direction (incoming or outgoing) into the rules.
There are two separate regulations for these two forms of traffic. To enable these two types of traffic, a firewall has to have two distinct rules for active FTP.
In contrast to a pull, where the initiator is internal, a push has an exterior initiator. FTP’s unique Active FTP program necessitates various setups.
26. The “Man In The Middle” attack: how do you respond?
When a third party is listening in on and directing a discussion between two people, the other person is fully ignorant of the situation, and this is known as a “Man in the Middle assault.”
There are two strategies for combating this assault. Start by avoiding open Wi-Fi networks. The use of end-to-end encryption should be done by both parties.
27. Have you ever written security policies?
The interviewer might learn more about your experience in policy and procedure drafting by asking this question. Show that you are capable of creating security policies for a company’s network by using examples from prior work.
Example: In my previous role, I was in charge of developing and enforcing security guidelines for our whole network. Once a month, my staff and I would get together to talk about any alterations we wanted to make to our present procedures.
We also went through each new hire’s job descriptions to make sure they were aware of how to maintain the security of our network. Being in this position has shown me how crucial it is to develop and implement robust security measures.
28. What exactly is a stateful inspection?
Stateful inspection, commonly referred to as dynamic packet filtering, is a firewall technique that keeps track of the status of running connections and decides whether to let network packets pass the firewall depending on that information.
Stateful inspection, as opposed to stateless inspection, is ideally suited to static packet filtering and can handle UDP and related protocols. TCP and other similar protocols can also be handled by it, though.
In order to get over the constraints of stateless firewall technology, Check Point Software Technologies (CPST) created the method for stateful firewall technology in the early 1990s.
Stateful firewall technology has now developed into a widely accepted industry standard and is one of the most widely used firewall technologies available today.
29. What do you mean by Ransomware?
Data is often encrypted or encoded by a ransomware threat until the victim pays the attacker a ransom. The ransom demand sometimes includes an expiry date.
The demand is satisfied if the victim doesn’t make a timely payment, the data is lost forever, or the ransom is raised. Attacks using ransomware are commonplace today. Ransomware affects companies all around Europe and North America.
30. Describe a DDoS attack.
In a DDoS attack, people are prevented from accessing linked websites and online services by a traffic flood of internet traffic. DDoS assaults are frequently driven by a variety of factors, such as irate customers who are displeased with a company’s services as well as hacktivists who want to intentionally harm a company’s servers or expose cyber vulnerabilities
. For the purpose of stealing customers or extorting money, a rival can interfere with or shut down another company’s online activities. Infected servers with hostage ware or ransomware can require them to pay a hefty quantity of money to have the harm fixed.
31. Spyware: What is it?
A type of software called spyware infiltrates your computer or mobile device and collects data about you, including the websites you visit, the files you download, your login and password, your credit card information, and email conversations.
Spyware is cunning, which is not surprising. It joins your operating system after secretly entering your computer without your knowledge or consent.
Even if you don’t read the tiny print, you could accept the conditions of an application that seems legal without doing so, in which case malware might get planted on your computer.
Spyware can penetrate your computer using a variety of techniques, but its function is always the same: it works covertly in the background, gathering information or keeping track of your behavior in order to harm your computer or your activities.
It lacks a simple removal mechanism, even if you find its unwanted existence on your computer.
32. Describe malware.
Hackers can access sensitive data and cause havoc on computers by using malicious software, which is a destructive application. Malware is any program, according to Microsoft, that harms a single machine, server, or computer network.
Instead of discussing how software was created, it refers to the software itself. Malware is characterized by its functionality as opposed to its origin since it is used for a certain goal as opposed to using a particular technology or strategy.
33. Phishing: What Is It?
Although some pop-up windows display advertising without obtaining any personal information from you or infecting your computer, others are made to target you with relevant advertisements.
Adware can employ commercial links to take you to harmful websites and infected pages, putting your machine at risk of infections.
When a victim receives a phishing email, they are tricked into divulging private data, including logins and credit card details. Everyone has to be aware of this form of cybercrime since it is widespread.
Through email, it is completed. Additionally, a phishing assault has the potential to install malware on the computer of a target.
34. What exactly is adware?
Malicious software known as adware shows unwanted adverts on your computer or mobile device. On mobile devices and PCs, adware is frequently deployed without the user’s awareness.
Adware frequently becomes triggered when customers attempt to install legal programs. Some pop-up windows show advertising without gathering information from you or infecting your computer, but others are tailored to target you with specific advertisements.
Adware can employ advertisement links to lead you to harmful websites and infected pages, putting you at risk for computer infections.
35. What countermeasure will work best against a CSRF?
A presently authenticated end user can issue illegal commands to a web application using a Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) attack. There are two good defense strategies.
In order to improve user anonymity, use unique names for each field on a form. Second, send a random token along with every request.
36. We aim to strengthen our cybersecurity. What are some areas you think we should concentrate on?
This question allows you to demonstrate your understanding of the existing cybersecurity landscape and how you might enhance it. When responding to this question, offer specifics about what you would do to improve the company’s security and why you choose those measures.
I propose that you begin by upgrading all of your software and operating systems.” This will assist to guarantee that any vulnerabilities are addressed before being exploited.
I would also recommend that all workers who have access to sensitive information use two-factor authentication. Even if unauthorized individuals obtain passwords, this will prevent them from accessing accounts.
37. What frequency of network monitoring is recommended?
The security of your network depends on monitoring. The interviewer wants to know how frequently you’d advise watching a network and what elements you’d take into account while making this choice.
Make sure to emphasize in your response how capable you are of making choices that will enhance network security for the firm.
Example: “While I think it’s crucial to frequently monitor networks, I also realize that doing so comes at a price. In my previous position, we once a week checked on our network.
But I would check on them more regularly if I saw any problems or weaknesses over the week. For an instance, if I noticed something odd happening on one of our servers, I would search the rest of the network for like behavior.
38. What exactly is a botnet?
A botnet, also known as a robot-controlled computer network, is a collection of computers that have been commandeered by a bot. A botnet can often be built and infiltrated using multi-layered computer systems.
A few of the automated activities that bots are capable of executing include massive data theft, server failures, and virus propagation.
39. Describe traceroute.
Administrators can track the route that data packets travel from their source to their destination and identify connection issues by utilizing network diagnostic tools like traceroute.
On a Windows computer, the command is tracert; on a Linux or Mac, it is traceroute. Both traceroute and tracert provide a similar function: they show the path that data takes from one point in a network to a certain IP server. Each device that a data packet must pass through in order to get to its final destination is listed by Traceroute along with its name and IP address.
Following that, it gives the device name and the round-trip time (RTT). Traceroute can be used to pinpoint an issue’s location, but it can’t tell you whether there is one or not.
Ping can be used to assist in determining whether an issue exists. Imagine trying to browse a website but finding that it takes a while for the pages to load. The location of the issue can be found by using traceroute to find the locations with the longest delays.
40. Which three key actions must you do to protect a Linux server if you work with one?
You must perform the below actions in order to safeguard your Linux server:
- Audit: Use Lynis to scan the network. In the following stage, a hardening index is created after each category is individually scanned.
- Hardening: Based on the level of security to be used, hardening follows auditing.
- Compliance: Due to the daily system checks, this process is continuing.
Data and information within a network are protected by network security. It involves preventing unwanted access to, alteration of, or theft of data that is kept on a computer or network server.
A crucial aspect of securing the data and systems of your company is network security. Cyberattacks can be averted, and vital infrastructure can be shielded from harm.
To be effective in a security interview, you must first grasp the fundamentals of security. This involves comprehending the fundamental ideas and principles of security, such as how to secure your network and protect your data.
You must also understand the sorts of hazards you encounter, how to detect and prevent them, and how to defend yourself from them. Furthermore, you should be aware of the sorts of vulnerabilities that exist in your system and how they might be exploited.
For assistance with interview preparation, see Hashdork’s Interview Series.