Human technology has reached its pinnacle with digital systems.

A microcontroller or microprocessor is typically used in such systems, which store, process, and convey data in digital form.

Digital circuits provide and receive data in binary digits (1s and 0s).

Furthermore, logic gates laid the groundwork for the mass of digital logic circuits that exist today.

Computers have become an essential component of daily life since they can accomplish a wide range of jobs and operations in a very short period of time.

One of the most significant responsibilities of a computer’s CPU is to conduct logical processes using hardware such as Integrated Circuits, software technologies, and electrical circuits.

Computers use binary digits rather than digital digits for simple operations. The logic gates do all of the operations.

## What is a logic gate?

A logic gate is a component of digital circuits that serves as a building block.

They carry out essential logical operations in digital circuitry. Logic gates are used in almost every technological equipment we use nowadays.

Logic gates, for example, can be found on mobile devices, tablets, and memory devices.

A circuit’s logic gates make decisions based on a mix of digital signals sent into its inputs. The vast majority of logic gates have two inputs and one output.

To construct logic gates, Boolean algebra is employed. At any one time, each terminal is in one of two binary states: false or true.

False equals zero, whereas true equals one. The binary output will differ based on the type of logic gate used and the input mix.

A logic gate is similar to a light switch in that the output is turned off in one position and on in the other. Logic gates are frequently used in integrated circuits (ICs).

## What are different types of logic gates?

Logic gates are classified into seven types:

- AND
- OR
- NOT
- NOR
- NAND
- XOR
- XNOR

Now, let’s deep dive into each one of them.

### 1. AND Gate

It’s a logic gate at its most basic level. There are two sorts of inputs available: 0 and 1.

Its operation is identical to that of the “and” operator. If all of the gate’s inputs have the same value (true), the result is 1, else 0 is delivered when any of the inputs have the same value (false).

#### Expression

Y = A.B

#### Block Diagram

#### Truth Table

A | B | Output |

0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 0 |

1 | 1 | 1 |

### 2. OR Gate

OR gates have two or more inputs and are a type of logic gate.

It can only produce one output at a time, though. According to algebra, the OR gate produces the sum of the input data.

The OR gate’s output is normally true (1) when at least one of its inputs is true; otherwise, the result is zero.

#### Expression

Y = A+B

#### Block Diagram

#### Truth Table

A | B | Output |

0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 1 |

### 3. NOT Gate

It can only have one input and output at any given time. NOT gates, on the other hand, are commonly used to generate output rather than input.

The result is 0 if the NOT gate’s input is 1; if the input is 0, the result is 1.

Due to its function, it’s also known as an inverter. The NOT gate is sometimes known as the Unary gate because of the clear number of total inputs.

#### Expression

Y=A’

#### Block Diagram

#### Truth Table

Input (A) | Output (NOT A) |

0 | 1 |

1 | 0 |

### 4. NOR Gate

It’s made up of both OR and NOT gates. The NOR gate is the polar opposite of the OR gate in terms of how it functions.

At any given time, the NOR gate can have two or more inputs but only one output. When all of the inputs are zero, the NOR gate returns 1; however, if any of the inputs is one (1), the output is zero (0).

#### Expression

Y=(A+B)’

#### Block Diagram

#### Truth Table

A | B | Output |

0 | 0 | 1 |

0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 0 |

1 | 1 | 0 |

### 5. NAND Gate

It is a combination of an AND gate and a NOT gate that can accept two or more inputs at the same time but only outputs one.

The method of the NAND gate is the inverse of that of the AND gate. When either of the NAND gate’s inputs is 0, output 1 is obtained; otherwise, the output is always 0.

#### Expression

Y=(A.B)’

#### Block Diagram

#### Truth Table

A | B | Output |

0 | 0 | 1 |

0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 0 |

### 6. XOR Gate

The Exclusive-OR, often known as the ‘Ex-OR’ gate, is a digital logic gate that takes more than two inputs but only outputs one value.

The XOR Gate’s output is ‘1’ if either of the inputs is ‘1.’ The result is ‘0’ if both inputs are ‘1.’ The result is ‘0’ if both inputs are ‘0.’

#### Expression

Y=A’.B+A.B’

#### Block Diagram

#### Truth Table

A | B | Output |

0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 0 |

### 7. XNOR Gate

The Exclusive-NOR, often known as the ‘EX-NOR’ gate, is a digital logic gate that takes more than two inputs but only outputs one.

If both inputs are ‘1,’ the XNOR Gate’s output is ‘1.’ The result is ‘0’ when both inputs are ‘0.’ The result will be ‘0’ if one of the inputs is ‘0.’

#### Expression

Y=A.B+A’B’

#### Block Diagram

#### Truth Table

A | B | Output |

0 | 0 | 1 |

0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 0 |

1 | 1 | 0 |

## Logic Gate Uses

- Logic gates can be coupled in a number of ways, and the latest devices, satellites, and even robots require a million of these combinations.
- Logic gates are used in a wide range of applications. Chips (ICs) contain these components, which are found in computers, phones, laptops, and other electronic devices.
- Data transfer, computation, and data processing all benefit from logic gates. Logic gates are used extensively in transistor-transistor logic and CMOS electronics.
- Burglar alarms, buzzers, switches, and street lights all use simple logic gate combinations. These gates are widely utilized in a range of industries since they can choose to start or stop depending on logic.

## Pros

- They are inexpensive. As a result, they become highly cost-effective.
- It needs less electricity.
- Logic 0 and logic 1 are clearly separated.
- Serves as the foundation for every digital gadget.
- Uses Boolean Algebra to perform logical operations.

## Cons

- Logic gate realization isn’t conceivable in a more sophisticated system or circuit design since it’s difficult to put and link them appropriately.
- Low operating voltage is a good thing to have.
- The input and output are separated by a time delay.

## Conclusion

The flow of electric current is dealt with by a logic gate.

You must provide input to it, and if the transfer is enabled, current can flow through it.

The criteria for the current flow you’re employing as a switch are generally described by the logic gate.

You can use logic gates to accomplish binary operations like addition, multiplication, and division.

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